Internet use in old age predicts smaller cognitive decline only in men
02 June 2020
Scientific Reports volume 10, Article number: 8969 (2020)
Internet use provides cognitive stimulation and thereby may contribute to the accumulation of cognitive reserve that is proposed to be instrumental for maintaining cognitive health in ageing. As the first study so far, we examined possible gender differences in the relationship between Internet use and subsequent cognitive decline over six years assessed through changes in Trail Making Test (TMT) accomplishment time in 897 older adults. Latent change score modelling (taking into account baseline cognitive level, chronic diseases, age, and central contributions to cognitive reserve through education, profession, and leisure engagement) revealed a significant interaction of frequency of Internet use and gender. More frequent Internet use in the first wave of data collection significantly predicted a smaller subsequent augmentation in TMT accomplishment time (i.e., a smaller subsequent cognitive decline) only in men, but not in women. In conclusion, frequent Internet use may contribute to the accumulation of cognitive reserve. The gender difference noted highlights an advantage for males. While this finding could be interpreted as gender-specific, it may be that the Internet activities males engage in differ from those of females, calling for a fine-grained investigation of Internet-based activities in future studies.
Due to the demographic changes, with more and more adults attaining older ages, but, at the same time, also an increase of people suffering from cognitive impairments, the preservation of cognitive health in old age constitutes one of the major challenges in this century 1,2,3. In this regard, the cognitive reserve concept hypothesises that cognitive stimulation throughout the lifespan, including education, profession, and leisure engagement, augments the individual’s reserve capacity that is proposed to be instrumental for maintaining cognitive health in ageing 4,5. For instance, it is assumed that inter-individual differences in the cognitive processes and involved neural networks account for inter-individual differences in the capacity to sustain pathology and age-related decline 6,7,8,9,10,11. Empirically, the assumptions of the cognitive reserve concept regarding the contributions to the accumulation of cognitive reserve throughout the lifespan have been confirmed by a large body of correlational evidence. For example, higher educational attainment in early life, cognitively demanding professions in working life, and greater leisure engagement in midlife and old age have been found to be related to better performance in a broad variety of cognitive tests assessing e.g. memory, processing speed, and attentional control in old age 12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19. Moreover, these cognitive reserve contributors have been found to be associated with a lower risk of developing dementia and later age at dementia onset 20,21,22,23,24.
In this regard, Internet use may represent a cognitively challenging leisure activity and as such provide cognitive stimulation and contribute to the accumulation of cognitive reserve. For instance, disentangling the reciprocal longitudinal relationships between Internet use and cognitive functioning over a 2-year period using a cross-lagged panel analysis, Kamin and Lang 25 found that Internet use had a greater impact on cognitive functioning than vice versa. Further empirical evidence suggests that frequent Internet use may help to reduce cognitive decline in older adults 26,27. This evidence dovetails with similar findings showing that frequent computer use in general is related to better cognitive functioning in old age 28,29. Yet, to the best of our knowledge, existing research on these issues did not explicitly focus on investigating potential gender differences in the relationship between Internet use and cognitive decline 30. However, considering gender differences in this context may be potentially important. This is because one of the most robust results in the literature on technology use in general is that technology use differs widely between gender 30,31,32,33. For instance, it has been well documented in younger populations that frequency of technology use (including the Internet), the type of technology devices used, and the context and behaviour of use differ by gender 31,32,33. Importantly, such differences in use have been associated to different cognitive impact. For example, a recent meta-analysis in younger samples showed that cognitively demanding action video games elicit larger effects on cognitive functioning than social simulation or puzzle video games34, a concern as the action game genre is dominated by male players, while social simulation and puzzle games more readily attract female players. Interestingly, experimental studies have established that action video game play can be used to reduce gender differences in spatial cognition 35. In contrast, in the aging and technology literature, the specific consequences for aging outcomes of gender differences in technology use remain quite mixed 36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43. Accordingly, in their recent review, Hunsaker and Hargittai 30 stress the urgent need of studies better representing the diversity of older populations, especially taking up a nuanced perspective on the relationship between gender and Internet use among older adults.
With the present longitudinal study, we aimed to target this important knowledge gap. Specifically, we examined the relationship between frequency of Internet use in the first wave of data collection and subsequent cognitive decline over six years assessed through changes in Trail Making Test (TMT) accomplishment time. We investigated whether this longitudinal relationship differed between women and men, taking into account baseline cognitive level, chronic diseases, age, and central contributions to cognitive reserve through education, profession, and leisure engagement.
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Nous allons retracer ici l’histoire non pas d’une, mais de nombreuses femmes qui, dans un anonymat partagé, choisissent de témoigner contre un double pouvoir, à la fois néolibéral et patriarcal. Ce sont les arpilleristas, femmes et tisserandes chiliennes, autrices d’histoires subversives écrites à l’aide d’une aiguille et d’un fil.#art #arpillera #broderie #embroidery #chile #chili #femme #mujer #woman #droitshumains #humanrights #histoire #history #garieri
Her #conclusion went against a view widely espoused by prominent astronomers, including Arthur #Eddington: that stars are made up of essentially the same elements as #Earth (silicon, carbon, iron and so on). In response to this #criticism, and because she was anxious to get her results published, Payne downplayed her finding as a possible error. #Russell was later credited with the discovery, having reached the same result by different means. #Payne’s role stayed hidden from the wider scientific consciousness for several decades.#science #astronomy #news #history #gender
Gywneth Paltrow Is Selling A Candle That Smells Like Her Vagina
Actress Gwyneth Paltrow is selling a candle that smells like her vagina at $75 a pop for her lifestyle and wellness company Goop. The name of the candle is none other than, you guessed it, “This Smells Like My Vagina.”
Paltrow first came across a scent that she said reminded her of the smell of her own vagina, she claims. The scent was then finalized for the “This Smells Like My Vagina” candle, which reportedly sold out within hours of its test run.
“This candle started as a joke between perfumer Douglas Little and GP — the two were working on a fragrance, and she blurted out, ‘Uhhh … this smells like a vagina,'” Goop outlined.
The smell then “evolved into a funny, gorgeous, sexy, and beautifully unexpected scent,” according to the company.
“That turned out to be perfect as a candle — we did a test run … and it sold out within hours,” Goop bragged. “It’s a blend of geranium, citrusy bergamot, and cedar absolutes juxtaposed with Damask rose and ambrette seed that puts us in mind of fantasy, seduction, and a sophisticated warmth.”
Goop, clearly, is not a traditional brand. In 2018, for example, the wellness company settled a six-figure lawsuit surrounding their “vagina eggs,” which were promoted to help regulate females’ hormones and negate menstrual cramps.
“It turns out, contrary to Goop’s advice, shoving a large egg made out of a porous mineral into the recesses of your lady-regions may not be the best treatment for conditions like endometriosis,” The Daily Wire reported. “Apparently, Goop knew — or, according to a complaint filed by the California consumer protection office, Goop should have known before they marketed this product, as well as a ‘flower essence’ they claimed treated depression, to consumers on their website.”
“The health and money of Santa Clara County residents should never be put at risk by misleading advertising,” the attorney for the California consumer protection office said in a statement. “We will vigilantly protect consumers against companies that promise health benefits without the support of good science … or any science.”
Paltrow again made headlines for her “progressive” ways last month, this time for gifting herself a vibrator for Christmas.
After Gwyneth shakes herself up a couple of Martinis, the narrator says “someone’s double-fisting” as she struts through the kitchen with her libations.https://www.dailywire.com/news/gywneth-paltro-is-selling-a-candle-that-smells-like-her-vagina
“The holidays are work, so don’t be afraid to ask for help with lighting, and food, and style, and hair, and hair, and hair,” the narrator cheekily continues. “Find your favorite look, or eleven of them. Look fabulous in each one, and get super high… In your heels, of course.”
The ad then takes a salacious turn by reminding people to treat themselves to a little self-service, but only after doing “something for others.”
“Do something for others but don’t forget about No. 1,” the narrator says as Paltrow pulls a vibrator from a Christmas stocking and keeps it for herself. “Yes, that is a vibrator.”
The ad finishes with the narrator wishing everyone a “happy holidays from G. Label.”
There is one #painting there – reproduced in the Saatchi exhibition – of a ritual that only one pharaoh could perform for another. It is the Opening of the Mouth: touching a mummy on the lips with an incense-burner to enable the dead to live again. This painting has been traditionally identified as the opening of Tutankhamun’s mouth by his successor Ay. But Ay was an old man, says Reeves, and this work clearly depicts a #youth. Reeves thinks the toucher looks like Tutankhamun while the mummy has the appearance of “a #woman – and one with features that correspond closely to #Nefertiti”.#news #Egypt #history
Converted Latter-day Saints believe that the #family proclamation, issued nearly a quarter century ago and now translated into scores of languages, is the Lord’s reemphasis of the gospel #truths we need to sustain us through current challenges to the family.#tradlife #tradwife #tradhusband #TheChurchOfJesusChristOfLatterDaySaints #mormons
The family proclamation begins by declaring “that #marriage between a #man and a #woman is ordained of #God and that the family is central to the #Creator’s plan for the eternal destiny of His children.” It also affirms that “ #gender is an essential characteristic of individual premortal, mortal, and eternal identity and purpose.” It further declares “that God has commanded that the sacred powers of #procreation are to be employed only between man and woman, lawfully #wedded as #husband and #wife.”
The proclamation affirms the continuing duty of husband and wife to #multiply and #replenish the earth and their “solemn responsibility to love and care for each other and for their #children”: “Children are entitled to birth within the bonds of #matrimony, and to be reared by a father and a mother who #honor marital vows with complete fidelity.” It solemnly warns against the #abuse of spouse or offspring, and it affirms that “ #happiness in family life is most likely to be achieved when founded upon the teachings of the Lord #Jesus #Christ.” Finally, it calls for the promotion of official “measures designed to maintain and strengthen the family as the #fundamental unit of #society.”